The American Redstart is 12 cm long and weighs 8.5 g. The breeding males are unmistakable, jet black above apart from large orange-red patches on their wings and tails. Their breast sides are also orange, with the rest of their underparts colored white. In their other plumages, American Redstarts display green in their upper-parts, along with black central tails and grey heads. The orange patches of the breeding males are replaced by yellow in the plumages of the females and young birds. Their song is a series of musical see notes. Their call is a soft chip.
The Ashy Prinia is a small warbler. This prinia is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent, western Myanmar and Sri Lanka. It is a common bird in urban gardens and farmland in many parts of India and its small size, distinctive colours and upright tail make it easy to identify. The northern populations have a rufous rump and back and have a distinct breeding and non-breeding plumage while other populations lack such variation.
These 15 cm long warblers have short rounded wings and longish graduated cream tail tipped with black subterminal spots. The tail is usually held upright and the strong legs are used for clambering about and hopping on the ground. They have a short black bill. The crown is grey and the underparts are rufous in most plumages. In breeding plumage, adults of the northern population are ash grey above, with a black crown and cheek with no supercilium and rufescent wings. In non-breeding season this population has a short and narrow white supercilium and the tail is longer. They are found singly or in pairs in shrubbery and will often visit the ground.
In winter, the northern subspecies has warm brown upperparts and a longer tail and has seasonal variation in plumage. The other races retain summer plumage all year round. West Bengal and Eastwards race has is darker slaty above than the nominate race of the Peninsula and deeper rufous on the flanks with a finer and shorter beak. The distinctive race in Sri Lanka has a shorter tail and has the juveniles with yellowish underparts apart from a distinct call.
The Asian Brown Flycatcher is a small passerine bird in the flycatcher family. This is an insectivorous species which breeds in Japan, eastern Siberia and the Himalayas. It is migratory and winters in tropical southern Asia from southern India and Sri Lanka east to Indonesia.
This species is 15 cm long, including the cocked tail. It is similar in shape to the larger Spotted Flycatcher, but is relatively longer-tailed. The dark bill is relatively large and broad-based.
The adult has grey-brown upperparts, which become greyer as the plumage ages, and whitish underparts with brown-tinged flanks. Young birds have scaly brown upperparts, head and breast.
The typical adult male Asian Paradise-flycatcher is about 20 cm long, but the long tail streamers double this.
It has a glossy black crown and crest, blue eye-ring and a long narrow rounded tail. The body and wings are white with very long central pair of tail feathers which form streamers that droop. The Females are much like the sub-adult males or rufous-morphs but the throat is greyish and not black and they lack streamers. The Asian Paradise-flycatcher is a noisy bird with a sharp skreek call.
It has short legs and sits very upright whilst perched prominently, like a shrike. It is insectivorous, hunting by flycatching in the understory. They bathe in small pools of water in the afternoon by diving from perches.
The Black-crested Titmouse is a small passerine bird in the Tit family. It was earlier listed as a subspecies of Tufted Titmouse. It is native to southern Texas, Oklahoma, and east-central Mexico.
It is 15 cm long, with rusty flanks, gray upperparts, and a whitish belly. The male has a long, dark black crest that is usually erect, while the females crest is not as dark. It is common wherever trees grow, whether they are deciduous, heavy timber, or urban shade trees. Its call is similar to that of the Tufted Titmouse, but shorter.
Its diet consists of berries, nuts, spiders, insects, and insect eggs. The Black-crested Titmouse nests in tree cavities, telephone poles, fence posts, and bird boxes. The eggs, four to seven of which are laid in March or April, are white with reddish-brown spots.
The Black-naped Monarch is a slim and agile passerine bird belonging to the family of monarch flycatchers. They are sexually dimorphic with males having a distinctive black patch on the back of the head and a narrow black half collar while the female is duller and lacks the black markings. They have a call that is similar to that of the Asian Paradise Flycatcher and in tropical forest habitats pairs may join mixed-species foraging flocks. Populations differ slightly in plumage color and sizes.
The adult male Black-naped Monarch is 15 cm long, and is mainly pale azure blue apart from a whitish lower belly. It has a black nape and a narrow black gorget. The female is duller and lacks the black markings. Her wings and back are grey-brown. There are however several geographically separated breeding populations that differ in the extent and shade of markings.
The black-throated bushtit is a small passerine, around 10.5 cm long and weighing 4-9 g. There is considerable racial variation in the plumage, but all subspecies have a medium length tail, a black throat and a black 'bandit mask' around the eye. The nominate race has a chestnut cap, breast band and flanks and dark grey back, wings and tail, and a white belly. The other subspecies have generally the same pattern (minus the chest band) but with grey caps or all grey bellies and flanks. Both sexes are alike.
The Blue-crowned Motmot is a colourful bird found ususally in dense forest of Central America and Mexico. They posseses a heavy Bill. It nests in tunnels in banks, laying about three or four white eggs.
The Blue-crowned Motmot is 50 cm long and weighs about 145 gm. The tail is very long with a bare-shafted racket tip. The upperparts are green, shading to blue on the lower tail, and the underparts are green or rufous depending on subspecies.
In all except the entirely blue-crowned subspecies coeruliceps, the central crown is black and surrounded by a blue band. There is a black eyemask, and the nape of momota is chestnut. The call is a low owl-like ooo-doot, although there are variations depending on the subspecies involved.
These birds often sit still, and in their dense forest habitat can be difficult to see, despite their size. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards, and will also regularly take fruit.
The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher is a very small songbird. Adult males are blue-grey on the upperparts with white underparts and have a long slender bill, long black tail and an angry black unibrow. Females are less blue without the unibrow. Both sexes have a white eye ring.
Their breeding habitat includes open deciduous woods and shrublands in southern Ontario, the eastern and southwestern United States, and Mexico. They build a cup nest similar in construction to a hummingbird nest on a horizontal tree branch. Both parents construct the nest and feed the young; they may raise two broods in a season.
They forage actively in trees or shrubs, mainly eating insects, insect eggs and spiders. They may hover over foliage or fly to catch insects in flight.
The tail is often held upright while defending territory or searching for food.
It breeds in temperate Asia and easternmost Europe. It is migratory, wintering in India and Sri Lanka. It is one of the most common winter warblers in those countries. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe. This is a medium-sized warbler, 12.5-14 cm in length. The adult has a plain brown back and pale underparts. Like most warblers, Blyth's reed warbler is insectivorous, but will take other small food items, including berries.
The booted warbler breeds from central Russia to western China, and migrates to winter in the Indian subcontinent as far south as Sri Lanka. It is a small bird, found in open country with bushes and other tall vegetation. 3-4 eggs are laid in a nest in a bush or vegetation. Like most warblers they are insectivorous.
The clamorous reed warbler breeds from Egypt eastwards through Pakistan, Afghanistan and northernmost India to south China, southeast Asia and south to Australia.
Most populations are sedentary, but the breeding birds in Pakistan, Afghanistan and north India are migratory, wintering in peninsular India and Sri Lanka. This bird is a species found in large reed beds, often with some bushes. 3-6 eggs are laid in a basket nest in reeds.Clamorous reed warbler is a large song thrush-sized warbler at 20 cm. The adult has an unstreaked brown back and whitish underparts. The forehead is flattened, and the bill is strong and pointed. The sexes are identical, as with most warblers.
It is greenish-brown above and off-white below, it is named onomatopoeically for its simple chiff-chaff song.
When not singing, the common chiffchaff can be difficult to distinguish from other leaf warblers with greenish upperparts and whitish underparts.
The Common Tailorbird is a songbird found across tropical Asia. Popular for its nest made of leaves sewn together. It is a common resident in urban gardens. Although shy birds that are usually hidden within vegetation, their loud calls are familiar and give away their presence. They are distinctive in having a greenish upper body plumage, long upright tail and the rust coloured forehead and crown.
These 15cm long warblers are brightly coloured, with bright green upperparts and whitish underparts. They have short rounded wings, a long tail, strong legs and a sharp bill with curved tip to the upper mandible. They are wren-like with a long upright tail that is often moved around. The crown is rufous and the upperparts are predominantly olive green. The underside is creamy white. The male and female are identical, except that the male has long central tail feathers in the breeding season. Young birds are duller. While calling; the dark patches on the sides of the neck become visible. These are due to the dark pigmented and bare skin that are present in both male and female and sometimes give the appearance of a dark gorget.
This Common Tailor bird is typically found in open farmland, scrub, forest edges and gardens. Tailorbirds get their name from the way their nest is constructed. The edges of a large leaf are pierced and sewn together with plant fibre or spider silk to make a cradle in which the actual nest is built.
The Crested Oropendola is a tropical bird. It is a resident breeder in lowland South America east of the Andes, from Panama and Colombia south to northern Argentina, as well as on Trinidad and Tobago.
It is a common bird, seen alone or in small flocks foraging in trees for large insects, fruit and some nectar. This bird is 50 cm long and weighs 300gm.
The plumage of the Crested Oropendola has a musty smell due to the oil from the preen gland.
Adult males are mainly black with a chestnut rump and a tail which is bright yellow apart from two dark central feathers. There is a long narrow crest which is often difficult to see. The iris is blue and the long bill is whitish. Females are similar but smaller, duller, and crestless.
The Eastern Kingbird is a large flycatcher. Adults are grey-black on the upperparts with light underparts; they have a long black tail with a white end and long pointed wings. They have a red patch on their crown, seldom seen. They are 25 cm long, 40 cm across the wings and weighing 60 gms.
Their breeding habitat is open areas across North America. They make a sturdy cup nest in a tree or shrub, sometimes on top of a stump or pole. These birds aggressively defend their territory, even against much larger birds.
These birds migrate in flocks to South America.
They wait on an open perch and fly out to catch insects in flight, sometimes hovering to pick food off vegetation. They also eat berries and fruit, mainly in their wintering areas.
Eastern Kingbird place their nests in the open and they hide nests very well. They nest in open fields; in shrubs over open water; high in tall trees and even in the tops of small stumps. Both male and female participate in nest defense.
They can also recognize and remove cowbird eggs from their nests. Still, Blue Jays, American Crows, Squirrels and Tree-climbing Snakes are occasion nest predators. American Kestrel are probable predators of adults.
The Eastern Phoebe is a small passerine bird. This tyrant flycatcher breeds in eastern North America, although its normal range does not include the southeastern coastal USA. It is migratory, wintering in the southernmost USA and Central America. It is a very rare vagrant to western Europe.
This species appears remarkably big-headed, especially if it puffs up the small crest. Its plumage is gray-brown above. It has a white throat, dirty gray breast and buffish underparts which become whiter during the breeding season. Two indistinct buff bars are present on each wing. Its lack of an eye ring and wingbars, and its all dark bill distinguish it from other North American tyrant flycatchers, and it pumps its tail up and down like other phoebes when perching on a branch. The Eastern Phoebe's call is a sharp chip, and the song, from which it gets its name, is fee-bee.
The Gray Kingbird breeds from the extreme southeast of the USA through Central America, from Cuba to Puerto Rico as well as eastward towards all across the Lesser West Indies, south to Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago the Guiana and Colombia. It is found in tall trees and shrubs, including the edges of savanna and marshes. It makes a flimsy cup nest in a tree. The female incubates the typical clutch of two cream eggs, which are marked with reddish-brown.
The adult Gray Kingbird is 25 cm long and weighs 50 gm. The upperparts are grey, with brownish wings and tail, and the underparts are white with a grey tinge to the chest. The head has a concealed yellow crown stripe, and a dusky mask through the eyes. The dark bill is heavier than that of the related, slightly smaller, Tropical Kingbird. The sexes are similar, but young birds have rufous edges on the wing coverts, rump and tail. Gray Kingbirds wait on an exposed perch high in a tree, occasionally sallying out to feed on insects, their staple diet.
The Great Tit is a passerine bird. It is a widespread and common species throughout Europe, the Middle East, Central and Northern Asia, and parts of North Africa in any sort of woodland. It is generally resident, and most Great Tits do not migrate except in extremely harsh winters.
The Great Tit is a distinctive bird, with a black head and neck, prominent white cheeks, olive upperparts and yellow underparts, with some variation amongst the numerous subspecies. It is predominantly insectivorous in the summer, but will consume a wider range of food items in the winter months. Like all tits it is a cavity nester, usually nesting in a hole in a tree. The female lays around 12 eggs and incubates them alone, although both parents raise the chicks. In most years the pair will raise two broods. The nests may be raided by woodpeckers, squirrels and weasels and infested with fleas, and adults may be hunted by Sparrowhawks.
The Great Tit has adapted well to human changes in the environment and is a common and familiar bird in urban parks and gardens.
The Green Oropendola is a species of bird in the Oropendola family. It is found in wooded habitats in the Amazon and Guianas of South America, and is generally common. Uniquely among the oropendolas, the Green Oropendola has a pale bill with an orange tip.
Green Oropendola nest resembles the Baya Weaver nest.
The Greenish Warblers are widespread leaf-warblers throughout their breeding range in northeastern Europe and temperate to subtropical continental Asia. This warbler is strongly migratory and winters in India. It is not uncommon as a spring or early autumn vagrant in Western Europe and is annually seen in Great Britain.
This is a typical leaf-warbler in appearance, grayish-green above and off-white below. The single wing bar found in the southern and western populations distinguishes them from most similar species. It is slightly smaller than that species and has a thinner bill, without a dark tip to the lower mandible.
It breeds in lowland deciduous or mixed forest; non-breeding birds in the warmer parts of its range may move to montane habitat in summer. Individuals from southeast of the Himalayas are for example quite often seen in Bhutan during the hot months, typically in humid Bhutan Fir forest up to about 3,800 meters or more, but they do not breed there and return again to the adjacent subtropical lowlands in winter.
The nest is on the ground in low shrub. Like its relatives, this small passerine is insectivorous.
The Grey-breasted Prinia is a small warbler, resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and southeast Asia.
It is typically found in open woodland, scrub jungle, and other open areas with some grass.
These 15 cm long warblers have short rounded wings, a longish tail, strong legs and a short black bill. In breeding plumage, adults are grey-brown above, with no supercilium, a black eye stripe and orange eye-ring. They have a rufous wing panel. Grey-breasted Prinia's underparts are white with a grey breast band. Non-breeding birds have browner upperpart plumage and a white supercilium, but lack the breast band. Young birds are like non-breeding adults but more rufous above.
Like most warblers, Grey-breasted Prinia is insectivorous.
The grey-headed canary-flycatcher is a species of small flycatcher-like bird found in tropical Asia. It has a square crest, a grey hood and yellow underparts. They are found mainly in forested habitats where they often join other birds in mixed-species foraging flocks. Pairs are often seen as they forage for insects by making flycatcher-like sallies and calling aloud.
The grey-hooded warbler is a species of leaf warbler. It is most famous for the way it warbles.
It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan. Its natural habitat is temperate forests.
The Guira Cuckoo is a social, non-parasitic cuckoo found widely in open and semi-open habitats of eastern and southern Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and north-eastern Argentina.
It has whitish-buff underparts and rump, dark brownish upperparts, a broadly white-tipped dark tail that is relatively long, an orange-rufous crest, bare yellow ocular-skin, and a relatively heavy, orange-yellow bill. It is generally rather shaggy-looking and has a total length of approximately 35 cm. The Guira Cuckoo is arboreal, but can frequently be seen on the ground, usually in flocks.
The Himalayan black-lored tit (Parus xanthogenys) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. The yellow-cheeked tit is probably its closest relative, and it may also be related to the yellow tit. These three tits almost certainly form a distinct lineage.
Lore in the bird's common name refers to the area between eye and bill.
This species is a resident breeder in the Himalayas. It is an active and agile feeder, taking insects and spiders from the forest canopy, and sometimes fruit.
It uses woodpecker or barbet holes for nesting, and will also excavate its own hole or use man-made sites.
The Indian Yellow Tit is a small, mostly black-and-yellow bird with a long crest. It is 15cm long.
The male is strikingly colored with forehead, cheek patch and underparts rich yellow. The cap, crest, back, wing coverts and vent are black. Rear of crest white. Wings light blue with white outer edges. Female: Crest slightly shorter, duller with olive-green back; lacks ventral spot. Juvenile: Paler with whitish underparts. Iris, dark brown; bill, black; legs, gray. Found in ones, twos or small flocks. Forages for insects in mid-story forest canopy. May join mixed-species foraging flocks in non-breeding season. Breeds in April. Nests in a cavity of a tall tree. Clutch size 3-4 eggs.
While Yellow Tit may always have been uncommon, the population has been further reduced by felling of broadleaved forests. It is unable to occupy marginal habitats such as edge and scrub, plantations of conifers and bamboo. At one time, Yellow Tit was captured during large-scale netting of wild birds for export. Much of its habitat is now secure in national parks, nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries.
The Jungle Prinia is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka, typically found in dry open grassland, open woodland, scrub and sometimes gardens.
These 15 cm long warblers have short rounded wings, a longish tail, strong legs and a short black bill. In breeding plumage, adults are grey-brown above, with a short white supercilium and warmer brown rump. There are rufous fringes on the closed wings and white edged to the tail. Underparts are whitish-buff. The sexes are identical except that the male has a blacker bill and mouth in the breeding season.
In winter, the upperparts are a warmer brown, and the underparts more buff. The tail is longer than in summer. There are a four races differing in plumage shade. The distinctive endemic race in Sri Lanka, retains summer plumage, including the shorter tail, all year round, and lacks the supercilium and white in the tail.
The Lesser Whitethroat is a common and widespread typical warbler which breeds in temperate Europe, except the southwest, and in western and central Asia. This small passerine bird is strongly migratory, wintering in Africa just south of the Sahara, Arabia and India.
Unlike many typical warblers, the sexes are almost identical. This is a small species with a grey back, whitish underparts, a grey head with a darker 'bandit mask' through the eyes and a white throat. It is slightly smaller than the Whitethroat, and lacks the chestnut wings and uniform head-face color of that species.
The paddyfield warbler is a species of marsh warbler. It breeds in temperate central Asia. It is migratory, wintering in Pakistan and India. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe although there are small breeding populations along the western shores of the Black Sea around the border between Bulgaria and Romania. This passerine bird is a species found in low vegetation such as long grass, reeds and rice. 4-5 eggs are laid in a nest in grass.
Plain Prinia is a resident breeder from Pakistan and India to south China and southeast Asia. It is typically found in wet lowland grassland, open woodland, scrub and sometimes gardens. The Plain Prinia builds its nest in a shrub or tall grass and lays 3-6 eggs.
These 15 cm long warblers have short rounded wings, a longish tail, strong legs and a short black bill. In breeding plumage, adults are grey-brown above, with a short white supercilium and rufous fringes on the closed wings. Underparts are whitish-buff. The sexes are identical.
The Red-breasted Flycatcher is a small passerine bird. It breeds in eastern Europe and across central Asia and is migratory, wintering in south Asia. It is a regular passage migrant in western Europe.
The breeding male is 12 cm and is mainly brown above and white below, with a grey head and orange throat. The bill is black and has the broad but pointed shape typical of aerial insectivores. As well as taking insects in flight, this species hunts caterpillars amongst the oak foliage, and will take berries. The base of the outertail feather is white and the tail is often flicked upwards as they perch looking out for insect prey which are caught on the wing or sometimes from the ground.
The Ruby-crowned Kinglet is a very small passerine bird found throughout North America. It is a member of the Kinglet family. The bird has olive-green plumage with two white wing bars and a white eye-ring. Males have a red crown patch, which is usually concealed. The male and female are identical [apart from the crown], and juveniles are similar in plumage to adults. It is one of the smallest songbirds in North America. The Ruby-crowned Kinglet is not closely related to other kinglets.
The Kinglet is migratory, and its range extends from northwest Canada and Alaska south to Mexico. Its breeding habitat is spruce-fir forests in the northern, mountainous, United States and Canada.
The Ruby-crowned Kinglet builds a cup-shaped nest, which may be pensile or placed on a tree branch and is often hidden. It lays up to 12 eggs, and has the largest clutch of any North American passerine for its size. It is mainly insectivorous, but also eats fruits and seeds.
The Ruby-crowned Kinglet is a very small bird, 12 cm long, having a wingspan of 18 cm, and weighing 10 gm. It has gray-green upperparts and olive-buff underparts. It has two white wingbars and a broken white eye ring. The wingbar on the greater secondary coverts is wider, and is next to a dark band. The kinglet has a relatively plain face and head, although the male has a scarlet-red crown patch, which is usually concealed by the surrounding feathers. The crown patch is rarely orange, yellow, or not present. Females are identical to males [except for the crown]. Immature birds are similar to adult females.
The Kinglet usually moves along branches or through foliage with short hops, and flies with bursts of rapid wing beats. It is constantly active, and is easily recognized by its characteristic wing-flicking.
The bird can be mistaken for the Hutton's Vireo, which also displays wing-flicking, though less frequently than the kinglet. It can also be mistaken for the Dwarf Vireo in Mexico. However, both of the vireos are larger, have stouter bills and legs, and lack the kinglet's black bar on the wings.
It is found in India and Pakistan. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests.
It is found in the mainly in the northern regions of the Indian Subcontinent and some parts of southwest India, as well as pockets of Central Asia including Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The species is partially migratory, with the Central Asian populations migrating to India, as far as the southwest Indian coast along the Arabian Sea, to Karnataka and Kerala.
Other populations, especially those across the lower Himalayas, remain in their native regions year-round and breed there. The species is also an occasional vagrant to other areas in India.
The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher is a long-tailed insect-eating bird closely related to the Kingbirds found in North and Central America.
Adult birds have pale gray heads and upper parts, light underparts, salmon-pink flanks, and dark gray wings. Their extremely long, forked tails, which are black on top and white on the underside, are characteristic and unmistakable. At maturity, the bird may be up to 40 cm in length. Immature birds are duller in color and have shorter tails.
They build a cup nest in isolated trees or shrubs, sometimes using artificial sites such as telephone poles near towns. The male performs a spectacular aerial display during courtship with his long tail forks streaming out behind him. Both parents feed the young. Like other kingbirds, they are very aggressive in defending their nest. Clutches contain three to six eggs.
Scissor-tailed flycatchers feed mainly on insects which they may catch by waiting on a perch and then flying out to catch them in flight. They also eat some berries.
Their breeding habitat is open shrubby country with scattered trees in the south-central states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas; western portions of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri; far eastern New Mexico; and northeastern Mexico. Reported sightings record occasional stray visitors as far north as southern Canada and as far east as Florida and Georgia. They migrate through the Gulf states of Mexico to their winter non-breeding range, from southern Mexico to Panama. Pre-migratory roosts and flocks flying south may contain as many as 1,000 birds.
It is found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. Features: 25 cm with long tail. Sexes alike. White forehead, fore crown; black crown,nape;black back spotted white; broad, white wing-bar, rump; deeply forked, graduated black and white tail; black till breast, white below. The white spotted back easily identifies this species from other similar sized fork-tails in the Himalaya. Solitary or in scattered pairs; active bird, moving on mossy boulders at water's edge or in mid- stream; long, forked tail gracefully swayed, almost always kept horizontal; flies low over streams, calling; sometimes rests in shade of forest; commonly seen bird of the Himalaya. Voice: shrill, screechy KREE call, mostly in flight; also some shrill, squeaky notes on perch.
They were earlier also known by the name of olivaceous leaf-warbler. Like other leaf-warblers it gleans insects from small branches and leaves. They are found on rocky hill and scrub forest habitats.
The species is found in small groups and has a tendency to forage low in the vegetation sometimes even hopping on the ground. They have a single note cheep call.
Sykes's Warbler was formerly considered a subspecies of the booted warbler, but is now considered a full species. Its breeding range is from northeast Arabia to Afghanistan. Like the booted warbler, many populations of the species migrate in winter to the Indian subcontinent as far south as Sri Lanka.
It is a small passerine found in open country with bushes and other tall vegetation. 3-4 eggs are laid in a nest in a bush or vegetation. Like most warblers they are insectivorous.
It is a small warbler, especially compared to others in their genus. They are pale brown (weak tea colour) above and whitish below with buff flanks. The outer tail feathers have pale edges. They have a short pale supercilium, and the bill is strong and pointed. Sykes's is larger and greyer than booted.
The Taiga Flycatcher or Red-throated Flycatcher is found in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, ranging across Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Mongolia, China, Vietnam, and Japan. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe.
It was formerly considered a subspecies of the red-breasted flycatcher.
The Tickell's Blue Flycatcher is a small perching bird in the flycatcher family. This is an insectivorous species which breeds in tropical southern Asia from India and Sri Lanka to Indonesia. They are blue on the upperparts and the throat and breast are rufous. They are found in dense scrub to forest habitats.
The Tickell's Blue Flycatcher is 15 cm long. It sits upright and often forages in the undergrowth. The male has the upperparts dark blue and the throat breast and flanks are orange fading into the buffy white belly. The female is duller blue with a brighter blue brow, shoulder, rump and tail. It hybridizes with the Pale-chinned Flycatcher in the Eastern Ghats of India and these hybrids have sometimes been called the subspecies vernayi. The juvenile is streaked and has a spotted mantle.It is an upright long-tailed flycatcher. The male is a beautiful bird which has bright blue upperparts, a red throat and breast, and the rest of the underparts white.
Females are duller, and the red is reduced in intensity and extent. Juvenile birds have scaly brown upperparts, head and breast, with just the wings and tail being blue. They have sometimes been to feed even after dusk. Apart from flying insects they have been noted to occasionally glean crawling insects.
The widespread species shows regional variations in plumage and size and several of these populations have been designated with subspecies names. The nominate form is found in India, Nepal and Myanmar.
Somewhat smaller than a sparrow and with a stocky build. The male is deep blue above, sides of head and neck are deep blue, and a prominent white patch runs from centre of throat, through breast to belly. The amount of white on the brow and tail show clinal variation from West to East along the Himalayan foothills.
The Western Kingbird is a large flycatcher.
Adults are grey-olive on the upperparts with a grey head and a dark line through the eyes; the underparts are light becoming light orange-yellow on the lower breast and belly. They have a long black tail with white outer feathers. Western kingbirds also have a reddish crown that they only display during courtship and confrontations with other species.
Their breeding habitat is open areas in western North America. They make a sturdy cup nest in a tree or shrub, sometimes on top of a pole or other man-made structure. The name kingbird is derived from their take-charge behaviour. These birds aggressively defend their territory, even against much larger birds such as hawks.
They wait on an open perch and fly out to catch insects in flight, sometimes hovering and then dropping to catch food on the ground. They also eat berries.
It winters in the forests of the Western Ghats. The nest is built in a hole, and the typical clutch is four eggs. The species has a distinctive crown stripe and two wing-bars. It often moves in small flocks or in mixed hunting parties.
This flycatcher is about 13 centimetres (5.1 in) long and has a longish beak. It forages in the undergrowth in the shade of dense forest canopy where it makes aerial forays to capture insects. The male is indigo blue with ultramarine blue supercilium and forehad. The lores and face are dark grey. The belly is white and bordered by smoky grey wash. The female is olive brown above with whitish lores. The rufous throat and breast fades to white towards the belly. The female has a chestnut tail and can be told apart from other flycatchers like by the lack of the black and white tail pattern.
It is found in forest, scrub and cultivation in southern and central India. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the white-throated fantail.
The adult white-spotted fantail is about 19 cm long. It has a dark fan-shaped tail, edged in white, and white supercilium and throat. Birds are mainly slate grey above, with a black eye mask, and a white throat and eyebrow. It has whitish underparts, and a grey breast band that is spotted white.
The white-spotted fantail is insectivorous, and often fans its tail as it moves through the undergrowth.
The White-throated Fantail is a small passerine bird. It is found in forest, scrub and cultivation across tropical southern Asia from the Himalayas, India and Bangladesh east to Indonesia.
The adult White-throated Fantail is about 20 cm long. It has a dark fan-shaped tail, edged in white, and white supercilium and throat. There is otherwise much variation in plumage between races. Most resemble the Himalayan which is mainly slate grey above and below, with a black eye mask, and a white throat and eyebrow, but of Peninsular India has whitish underparts, and a grey breast band that is spotted white.
The White-throated Fantail lays three eggs in a small cup nest in a tree. The White-throated Fantail is insectivorous, and often fans its tail as it moves through the undergrowth.
The Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds from eastern North America west to the Pacific, and southward from there into Western Mexico. It is a migratory bird which travels to Central America and the Caribbean for winters. Among warblers it is one of the last to leave North America in the fall, and among the first to return. It is an occasional vagrant to the British Isles and Iceland.
In summers, males have streaked backs of black on slate blue, white wing patches, a streaked breast, and conspicuous yellow patches on the crown, flank, and rump. Females are more dull, with brown streaking front and back, but still have noticeable yellow rumps.
These birds are primarily insectivorous. They often flit, flycatcher-like, out from their perches in short loops, in search of insects. They nest in coniferous and mixed woodlands, and lay 4–5 eggs in a cup-shaped nest.
The Yellow-throated Warbler is a small migratory songbird species breeding in temperate North America. In summer, male Yellow-throated Warblers display grey upperparts and wings, with double white wing bars. Their throats are yellow, and the remainder of their underparts are white, and are streaked with black on the flanks. Their heads are strongly patterned in black and white, with a long supercilium; the different subspecies may display yellow and white superciliums. Remiges and rectrices are black.
The zitting cisticola is brown above, heavily streaked with black markings. The underparts are whitish, and the tail is broad, white-tipped and flicked frequently, giving rise to the alternative name for the species. The adult males have less crown streaking and more back marking than the females, but there are no great difference between the sexes or the eighteen geographical races.